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Polyscale Technology

Over the long history of materials sciences, atoms and molecules, with certain electronic, atomic and molecular structures, are academically recognized as basis of functions of materials. On the other hand, in terms of practical use of materials, the materials technologies are also developed as macroscopic technology for forming and shaping the materials to be devices or tools. Referring the scales of those technologies, the former one can be categorized as “atomic” technology in pm and sub-nm. The latter “macroscopic” ones are located from m (meter) down to mm scale ranges, where an optical microscope can be used. In between the scales, “nano” scale is located. Since the word “nanotechnology” was used by R. P. Feynman in 1959, almost 50 years has passed. The famous “nanotechnology initiative” by Bill Clinton initiated the nanotechnology boom and enormous technologies in “nano” scale have been developed in the decades. The fruits of the nanotechnology in the decades in materials processing and characterizations are nano-structure forming technologies, nano-assembling technologies and high resolution observations of the materials in nano scale in various methods. Finally, the nanotechnology connected the above “atomic” and “macroscopic” technologies and now, it is time to go for “polyscale technology”*1 throughout the scales. A piece of crystal starts growing in atomic scale and grows to have passive and active functions in nano scale and micro scale. It eventually grows to be used in sizes in mm to mm. The beauty of Jewel is scientifically discussed in atomic and nano scales as for the colors, refractive index, transparency and hardness, while the brilliancy and the looks are dominated in mm to mm scale in terms of the polishing and cutting. In case of DDS (drug delivery system) technology, for designing a medicine, we use the atomic and molecular technologies. The drug should be assembled in a bio-functional carrier by the nanotechnologies. The delivery itself is a design in micro scale to find out the best route and method to deliver the medicine to proper cells. Photonic materials, for example nano phosphors, are designed by using quantum mechanics in the atomic scale, synthesized and modified by functional polymers in the nano scale, and finally used for bio-imaging in the mm to mm scale. Academic knowledge of photonic, electric, magnetic, and thermoelectric properties of materials is applied to design materials in atomic and nano scales. Physical, chemical, biological and geological knowledge of properties and processing of materials can only be utilized by encountering all technology from the atomic technologies to the macroscopic technologies through the nanotechnology. Polyscale technology can, in other words, convert academic knowledge to “make” materials into industrial knowledge to “use” materials. For industrializing the academic knowledge in atomic or nano scales, we always need the concept overview from the atomic scale to the macroscopic scale. We call the technology throughout the scales to be “polyscale technology.” Now the importance of the polyscale technology should be emphasized as a post-nano technology after the tremendous development of nanotechnologies in the decade. The “scale” does not only mean a measuring unit but means the field of research. The polyscale technology includes the interdisciplinary collaboration among the basic sciences as physics, chemistry, biology, geology and basic engineering for a practical use of technologies.

*1 The "polyscale technology" is a coinage expresses post nanotechnology. The meaning is that by connecting traditional atomic- and macro-scale technologies together with recent intensively developed nanotechnologies, one can apply the academic knowledge to practical industry.

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Last-modified: 2007-04-26 (木) 23:18:37 (4289d)